ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS

The solemn Tisha Be-Av prayer. Men are sitting on the floor and women are standing in the womens section, while the rabbi is blowing the shofar. From the Rothschild Miscellany, northern Italy, c. 1470. The solemn Tisha Be-Av prayer. Men are sitting on the floor and women are standing in the women's section, while the rabbi is blowing the shofar. From the Rothschild Miscellany, northern Italy, c. 1470. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   THOUGH THE ILLUMINATION OF HEBREW MANUSCRIPTS CONCEIVABLY BEGAN IN THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD (330–63 B.C.E.) AND CONTINUED INTO THE 20TH CENTURY, IT IS ESSENTIALLY AN ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES. STYLES VARIED BY REGION AND PERIOD BUT THE MAIN INSPIRATION WAS THE BIBLE.   Judaeo Persian Manuscript, Iran, 1686. 18054 Fol. 38 r. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Judaeo Persian Manuscript, Iran, 1686. 180/54 Fol. 38 r. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.     Different stages of ritual in the Kosher preparation of meat. From the Golden Haggadah, an illuminated Hebrew manuscript, Spain, 1320. British Library, London. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Different stages of ritual in the Kosher preparation of meat. From the "Golden Haggadah," an illuminated Hebrew manuscript, Spain, 1320. British Library, London. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Noahs Ark. The dove is returning with a branch in its beak, a sign that the flood water has receded. Hebrew Manuscript from northern France, c. 1280. British Library, London. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem. Noah's Ark. The dove is returning with a branch in its beak, a sign that the flood water has receded. Hebrew Manuscript from northern France, c. 1280. British Library, London. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   Sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham holding the knife to sacrifice his son Isaac, with the angel holding his hand from striking the fatal blow. Hebrew Manuscript from northern France, c. 1280. British Library, London. Photo: Z. "Sacrifice of Isaac." Abraham holding the knife to sacrifice his son Isaac, with the angel holding his hand from striking the fatal blow. Hebrew Manuscript from northern France, c. 1280. British Library, London. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law and bringing them to Gods people on Mt. Sinai. Page from the Birds Heads Haggadah, the earliest illuminated manuscript from Germany, c. 1300. Ms. I 8052. Parchment. Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law and bringing them to God's people on Mt. Sinai. Page from the Birds' Heads Haggadah, the earliest illuminated manuscript from Germany, c. 1300. Ms. I 80/52. Parchment. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     \<!   \> \!al hakol yitgadalmagnificent above all. the prayer preceding the torah reading on sabbaths and festivals. Al Hakol Yitgadal—"Magnificent above all." The prayer preceding the Torah reading on Sabbaths and festivals. A man wearing a tallit (prayer shawl), holding a covered Torah, standing before a closed Torah ark covered by a parokhet (Torah ark curtain). From the Rothschild Miscellany, northern Italy, c. 1470. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Erna Michael Haggadah. Haggadah of German rite, Passover rules with commentary on the text and rules, Middle Rhine, c. 1400. Passover Eve table with seated men reading the Haggadah. A gold Sabbath oil-lamp hangs in the middle of the room. Erna Michael Haggadah. Haggadah of German rite, Passover rules with commentary on the text and rules, Middle Rhine, c. 1400. Passover Eve table with seated men reading the Haggadah. A gold Sabbath oil-lamp hangs in the middle of the room. Pen and ink, tempera and gold leaf on parchment, handwritten, 35 × 25.5 cm. 181/18 M549-3-66, Fol. 40. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Gift of Jakob Michael, New York, in memory of his wife, Erna Sondheimer-Michael, 1966. Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, by Moshe Caine.     A carpet page from the Damascus Keter. Bible with masoretic notes, Spain, Burgos, 1260. A carpet page from the Damascus Keter. Bible with masoretic notes, Spain, Burgos, 1260. The scrolls and leaves are outlined by micrographic Masorah (the traditional textual apparatus of the Bible) and this in turn is surrounded by a frame of Masorah in large letters. This Bible was written by Menahem bar Abraham Ibn Malik in 1260. It was for many centuries the pride of the Damascus synagogue. Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem, Ms. Heb. 4°790. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.     Illuminated Hebrew Manuscript of Avicennas Canon of MedicineIbn Sinnas Canon (medical treatise), Italy, Ferrara, 15th century., Italy, Ferrara, 15th century.") Illuminated Hebrew Manuscript of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine—Ibn Sinna's Canon (medical treatise), Italy, Ferrara, 15th century. The first chapter of each book contains a page with a decorative framed border illustrating the contents of that particular book. The style of the illustrations is Ferrarese of the late 15th century. Bologna, University Library, Ms. 2197. Photo: Z. Radovan, Jerusalem.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 9 HER–INT FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. 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ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries HER–INT 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 841 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 842 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 848 • Transliteration Rules 861 Glossary 864 HERACLES HERACLES (Latin: Hercules), mythological Greek hero whom Philo praises as a benefactor of mankind and for his courage and determination. The historian cleodemus-malchus (cited by Josephus (Ant., 1:240–1) from alexander polyhistor ) relates that the sons of Abraham by keturah campaigned with Heracles against Libya and that the daughter of one of them married Heracles and bore him a son. Plutarch, without mentioning that Heracles' wife was the granddaughter of Abraham, has a similar account (Life of Sertorius, 9). (Howard Jacobson)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Manuscripts — • Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Manuscripts     Manuscripts    …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW — MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW, term which includes religious and secular books, as well as letters and documents written on papyrus, parchment, hides, and paper in Hebrew characters, sometimes using them for the writing of languages other than Hebrew, e.g …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

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